Free your Arch GNU/Linux to Hyperbola GNU/Linux-libre
Since Hyperbola migrated from systemd's Filesystem Hierarchy used by Arch to the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS), it is required that you follow this migration article carefully and in the proper sequence when migrating from Arch.
What is the Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS)?
The Filesystem Hierarchy Standard (FHS) defines the main directories and their contents in GNU/Linux and other Unix-like computer operating systems such as HyperbolaBSD. See our article for further details.
Run the live image and mount your root partition to /mnt. Replace /dev/sdX with your actual root partition.
# mount /dev/sdX /mnt
# cryptsetup luksOpen /dev/sdX hdd
# mount /dev/mapper/hdd /mnt
If you are using LVM, you will need to mount the volume as the root partition.
# mount /dev/mapper/matrix-rootvol /mnt
If you are having trouble locating your root partition, try using:
This command will print a list of drives, partitions, and volume groups.
Install Hyperbola keyring and mirror list
Disable signature verification manually by modifying the line in /mnt/etc/pacman.conf:
RemoteFileSigLevel = Never
Install Hyperbola keyring package and mirror list for Hyperbola repositories in /mnt/etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist:
# pacman --root /mnt -U https://www.hyperbola.info/packages/core/any/hyperbola-keyring/download/
# pacman --root /mnt -U https://www.hyperbola.info/packages/core/any/pacman-mirrorlist/download/
Reenable signature verification in /mnt/etc/pacman.conf:
#RemoteFileSigLevel = Required
Rename mirrorlist.pacnew as mirrorlist:
# cp -av /mnt/etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist.pacnew /mnt/etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist
Remove custom packages and orphaned ones
# pacman --root /mnt -R $(pacman --root /mnt -Qqm)
# pacman --root /mnt -Rdd $(pacman --root /mnt -Qqm)
Replace Arch packages with Hyperbola ones
# nano -w /etc/pacman.conf ------------------------------------------------------------------------- [multilib] Include = /etc/pacman.d/mirrorlist
Clean the /mnt environment's package database.
# pacman --root /mnt -Scc
Update the live image environment's package database:
# pacman -Syy
Update the /mnt environment's package database.
# pacman --root /mnt -Syy
Fix package database
# pacman --root /mnt -D --asdeps $(pacman --root /mnt -Qqe)
# pacman --root /mnt -D --asexplicit $(pacman --root /mnt -Qqtd)
Update the filesystem
The filesystem has significantly changed since v0.2.9, and requires manual upgrading.
# pacman --root /mnt --cachedir /mnt/var/cache/pacman/pkg -S filesystem
Update all packages
# pacman --root /mnt --cachedir /mnt/var/cache/pacman/pkg -Suu base
Install your-freedom to remove nonfree packages that do not have libre replacements:
# pacman --root /mnt --cachedir /mnt/var/cache/pacman/pkg -S your-freedom
Reinstall all non-explicitly installed packages
# pacman --root /mnt --cachedir /mnt/var/cache/pacman/pkg -S --asdeps $(pacman --root /mnt -Qqd)
Reinstall all explicitly installed packages
# pacman --root /mnt --cachedir /mnt/var/cache/pacman/pkg -S $(pacman --root /mnt -Qqe)
Chroot into the installed system
# arch-chroot /mnt
Reinstall all packages again
# pacman -S --asdeps $(pacman -Qqd)
# pacman -S $(pacman -Qqe)
Regenerate the kernel image
# mkinitcpio -p linux-libre-lts
Depending on your installed bootloader, you will need to reinstall it to obtain the latest changes.
# grub-install /dev/sdX
For grub regenerate your grub.cfg file, run:
# grub-mkconfig -o /boot/grub/grub.cfg
Manually change following lines in /boot/syslinux/syslinux.cfg to reflect change:
LABEL hyperbola MENU LABEL Hyperbola GNU/Linux-libre LINUX ../vmlinuz-linux-libre-lts ... INITRD ../initramfs-linux-libre-lts.img LABEL hyperbolafallback MENU LABEL Hyperbola GNU/Linux-libre Fallback LINUX ../vmlinuz-linux-libre-lts ... INITRD ../initramfs-linux-libre-lts-fallback.img
# mkdir /boot/efi
# mount /dev/sdY /boot/efi
# cp -vi initramfs-linux-libre-lts* vmlinuz-linux-libre-lts /boot/efi/efi/hyperbola/
Since Hyperbola has announced the end of systemd support, migration to OpenRC is required.
What is OpenRC?
OpenRC is a dependency based init system maintained by the Gentoo developers, that works with the system provided init program, normally SysVinit.
netctl works with systemd only, therefore it will not work anymore from Milky Way v0.2 since OpenRC is the main init system of Hyperbola. We will assume you already have an alternative, in our case, it is netifrc.
Before Arch migrated to systemd, users had to be manually added to some groups in order to be able to access the corresponding devices. Read more about here.
Make sure your user is on the audio group, you won't have sound otherwise:
# gpasswd -a <your-user> audio
In the case of some graphical environments, such as KDE, you´ll need to edit /etc/pulse/client.conf and remove the autospawn = no line, and it should look something like this:
... ; default-sink = ; default-source = ; default-server = ; default-dbus-server = ; autospawn = yes ; daemon-binary = /usr/bin/pulseaudio ; extra-arguments = --log-target=syslog ; cookie-file = ; enable-shm = yes ; shm-size-bytes = 0 # setting this 0 will use the system-default, usually 64 MiB ; auto-connect-localhost = no ; auto-connect-display = no
Same for video, your games might be laggy otherwise:
# gpasswd -a <your-user> video
# gpasswd -a <your-user> network
# gpasswd -a <your-user> optical
Also for storage:
# gpasswd -a <your-user> storage
# gpasswd -a <your-user> disk
And for CUPS:
# gpasswd -a <your-user> sys
Since OpenRC is included by default and systemd is blacklisted by your-freedom, one may get messages on migrating like:
run 'rc-update add cronie default' run 'rc-update add haveged default'
Running these command(s) adds the service(s) to the specified runlevels. For example on running:
# rc-update add cronie default
The cronie service would be added to the default runlevel and would automatically be started at boot.
cronie (for cron) and haveged (for entropy harvesting) are some common services that can be enabled.
Also you need to install polkit to gain enough desktop privileges for operations like shutdown, mounting usb device:
# pacman -S polkit
Services often required
Once you migrate to OpenRC, you might need to add lvm2 etc.
There is the procedure for lvm2:
# rc-update add lvm boot
# rc-update add dmcrypt boot
# rc-update add alsasound default
# rc-update add cronie default
On each package containing an OpenRC service, you will have have this message :
==> rc 'rc-update add ... default'
$ ls -ls /etc/systemd/system/multi-user.target.wants/
Sometimes, there are target files such as remote-fs.target which are useless in OpenRC.
OpenRC has its configuration in /etc/conf.d/, in order to have your hostname, edit /etc/conf.d/hostname:
# nano -w /etc/conf.d/hostname
And replace localhost with the name that you want:
# Set to the hostname of this machine hostname="localhost"
You need to enable the software at boot:
# rc-update add NetworkManager default
In order to not change the computer's hostname when you're connecting to Internet (provided by dhcp), uncomment the part [keyfile] in the file /etc/NetworkManager/NetworkManager.conf as follow :
# Static hostname [keyfile] hostname=**Votre hostname**
For NetworkManager to work correctly in OpenRC, make sure that /etc/hostname has the same localhost as in /etc/conf.d/hostname. Optionally, you can safely remove /etc/hostname
As the hostname, you need to setup the keymap in the file /etc/conf.d/keymaps:
If you have an advanced usage of your keymap, you can watch the other functionalities, documented in the comments. You can find all the available keymaps in /usr/share/kbd/keymaps. Then run:
# rc-service keymaps restart
Login display manager
Unlike another distros with OpenRC support, the DM is launched directly.
For example, with lightdm, you just need enable the service.
# rc-update add lightdm default
Adaptation between systemctl and rc-update
Add or delete a service
You can add a service using this way:
# rc-update add <service> <runlevel>
And delete it as follow:
# rc-update del <service> <runlevel>
Services currently running
In order to have a summary of all the services running, stopped etc, you can run this command:
# rc-status --all -v
Stop/Start/Restart a service
To restart a service, you need to use rc-service:
# rc-service <service> restart
Consistent network device naming is not disabled
To disable consistent network device naming, disable the assignment of fixed names, so that the unpredictable kernel names are used again, by masking udev's rule file for the default policy. This “masking” can be done by making a symbolic link to /dev/null. As root, issue a command as follows:
# ln -s /dev/null /etc/udev/rules.d/80-net-name-slot.rules
Sysctl.conf is missing
You can encounter an issue if /etc/sysctl.conf is missing. To fix this, you need to create the file:
# touch /etc/sysctl.conf
/usr/libexec/rc/cache doesn't exist
If you have this error when you shutdown the computer:
WARNING: /usr/libexec/rc/cache is not writable!
The solution is to create the folder:
# mkdir /usr/libexec/rc/cache
Swap isn't enabled
Systemd used to mount the swap automatically, you need to manually add the swap in /etc/fstab as follow:
# /dev/sda2 UUID=0c3e9434-bc5c-461c-a5e4-4e9fe5f9a149 swap swap sw 0 0
tmpfs isn't present
As the swap, systemd automatically mounts the tmpfs. Add it manually in /etc/fstab:
tmpfs /tmp tmpfs nodev,nosuid 0 0
The system can't shutdown correctly
Begin with OpenRC 0.28 SysVinit is replaced with openrc-init, shutdown is replaced with openrc-shutdown. If you use startx to start your desktop, you also need to modify ~/.xinitrc for xfce4, replace exec ck-launch-session startxfce4 to startxfce4.
Complete the migration
Exit from chroot
Unmount and reboot
# umount -l /mnt
Then login into Hyperbola!
Welcome, you are now in Hyperbola!
Independent of OpenRC, Hyperbola contains 2 notable changes:
- The adoption of LibreSSL as default provider of Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) and Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocols
- The adoption of Xenocara as default provider of display server for the X Window System
LibreSSL is a version of the TLS/crypto stack forked from OpenSSL in 2014, with goals of modernizing the codebase, improving security, and applying best practice development processes.
It was forked from the OpenSSL in April 2014 as a response by OpenBSD developers to the Heartbleed security vulnerability in OpenSSL, with the aim of refactoring the OpenSSL code so as to provide a more secure implementation.
If you have local or custom OpenSSL linked packages, they need to be rebuild against LibreSSL. There will likely be broken packages.
It includes packages with direct dependencies on:
Also packages with link to:
Xenocara provides a framework to host OpenBSD modifications and to automate the build of the modular X.Org components, including 3rd party packages and some software maintained by OpenBSD developers.
It includes a customised X.Org X server that utilises a dedicated _x11 user by default to drop privileges and perform privilege separation in accordance to OpenBSD's least privilege policy. Furthermore, Xenocara includes several other projects, such as cwm, a stacking window manager for the X Window System.
If you have local or custom X.Org linked packages, they need to be rebuild against Xenocara. There will likely be broken packages.
It includes packages with direct dependencies on:
Also packages with link to:
# pacman -S xenocara-server
Do you encounter some hardware not working after installing your-freedom? This most likely means that there's no free driver or firmware available for the device (check dmesg). It's common for Wi-Fi cards to require a firmware to be loaded into the card. Many cards don't work at all if the firmware is missing. The firmware is often proprietary, thus we don't distribute it. It's the case for almost any internal Wi-Fi card.
The usual fix to the problem is either to replace the card or use an external USB Wi-Fi dongle. You can buy one with Atheros chipset (eg. ath9k_htc for external USB dongle or ath9k for PCI and PCI-Express expansion slots) or RTL818x chipset (eg. rtl8187 for external USB dongle or rtl818x_pci for PCI and PCI-Express expansion slots) since there is a free firmware for these Wi-Fi adapters. You can also search the h-node database to find Wi-Fi adapters known to work well with free software or scripts/deblob-$ver to check Wi-Fi adapters included in the Linux-libre device blacklist.
This wiki article is based on ParabolaWiki.