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A desktop environment is a complete ecosystem of software and resources providing a homogeneous graphical user experience. Generally based on specific graphical widgets, configuration system, root window with desktop background, taskbar with window list and menu, icons, window manager etc. It provides a coherent visual metaphor for a user to interact with the computer.
Desktop environments can be a great convenience to many users, though a custom graphical environment can be assembled if preferred, i.e. Xorg could be used with a window manager and select desktop utilities. Hyperbola's flexibility allows of course for the system to be used exclusively in text mode, as a server platform for example, if that is perfered.
Hyperbola at this moment does not have separate releases or “flavors” for different desktop environments, as some other distributions do - a desktop environment is simply installed on the base system.